Operators

R's binary and logical operators will look very familiar to programmers. Note that binary operators work on vectors and matrices as well as scalars.

Arithmetic Operators

Operator Description
+ addition
- subtraction
* multiplication
/ division
^ or ** exponentiation
x %% y modulus (x mod y) 5%%2 is 1
x %/% y integer division 5%/%2 is 2

Logical Operators

Operator Description
< less than
<= less than or equal to
> greater than
>= greater than or equal to
== exactly equal to
!= not equal to
!x Not x
x | y x OR y
x & y x AND y
isTRUE(x) test if X is TRUE

# An example
x <- c(1:10)
x[(x>8) | (x<5)]
# yields 1 2 3 4 9 10

# How it works
x <- c(1:10)
x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x > 8
F F F F F F F F T T
x < 5
T T T T F F F F F F
x > 8 | x < 5
T T T T F F F F T T
x[c(T,T,T,T,F,F,F,F,T,T)]
1 2 3 4 9 10